Sunday, December 8, 2019

cave of stars Essay Example For Students

cave of stars Essay Three centuries after the destruction of Earth, humankind has spread out across the stars. The theocratic government on Tau Ceti IV is dedicated to order and stability. The New Vatican restricts access to knowledge, discourages technical innovation and deals harshly with heretics and dissidents. Only through such discipline, the ruling clerics say, can they avoid another cataclysm like the one that destroyed humanitys home world. From the depths of space, however, come humans who embody an entirely different way of life, which they call macrolife. They explore the cosmos in hundred-kilometer-long space habitats called mobiles. A cybernetic network called the Link connects the millions of inhabitants of each mobile, forming a kind of collective intelligence. Nanotechnology and genetic engineering have endowed the macrolife residents with immortality. Voss Rhazes pities the Cetians, who endure brief lives of hardship. Josephus Bely, known as Pope Peter III, is old and dying. He fears death despite his professed faith in the afterlife. He begs the visitors to restore his health, but the popes illegitimate daughter and his chief advisor argue that it would be best to let the pope die naturally, clearing the way for a more progressive government. Voss agrees that this would be best for the people of Tau Ceti. Neither Voss nor the other macrolifers ever suspect that the aged pope could be a threat. While the pope on Old Earth was said to hold the keys to heaven, Pope Peter holds the keys to hell, and his last act devastates both worlds. Cave of Stars, a companion volume to Zebrowskis acclaimed 1979 novel Macrolife, is an extremely thoughtful book, in the sense that the characters spend a lot of time thinking. This is not a bad thing, for Zebrowskis vivid characters personalize and enliven time-worn debates about faith and reason, tradition and change, responsibility and individual autonomy. Zebrowski comes down on the side of reason, but the macrolifers pay a terrible price when they underestimate the desperation of those whose faith is challenged. The later chapters seem rushed, especially when compared to the careful deliberation at the beginning of the novel, and the macrolifers lack the psychological complexity of the Cetians. But these are minor defects in an otherwise magisterial wor k of speculative fiction. In Zebrowskis capable hands, the shifts in the story line seem natural, for it is history that Zebrowski is narrating, bloody and chaotic up close, but when viewed from the distance of years it becomes a grand procession toward a future of wonder and menace and infinite possibilities.

Saturday, November 30, 2019

Slave Religion by Albert J. Raboteau Essay Example

Slave Religion by Albert J. Raboteau Essay Author Albert Raboteau’s book will find a place in any American religious history canon. Raboteau, being an African American himself, was able to bring out the compassion and earnestness in his cause – which is to bring to light the plight and travails of enslaved Black Americans from a religious perspective. The book is written in such a tone that it opens more profound levels of understanding and appreciation for the reader. In this way, the book is a piece of art as well as a document of history. The book succeeds in taking the reader to the original setting and milieu that forms its background. More importantly, the book adopts simple prose style that appeals to readers from all walks of life. The rest of the essay will be a summary of the central points in the book. The book takes the form of Raboteau’s responses to some of the reactions he had experienced over the years. In line with his literary mentor Sydney Ahlstrom’s anticipation, the revival of African-American history as a field of inquiry in its own right also helped rejuvenate the allied subject of religion and history with respect to America. This is also made necessary by the fact that any attempt to trace African-American history is inevitably linked to the associated religious traditions, and likewise, â€Å"the religious history of America cannot be told adequately without incorporation of the African-American experience†. Raboteau’s narrative gives vent to the suppressed voices of African Americans of the past, quite reminiscent of some of the narrative techniques employed by African American novelists of the eighteenth and nineteenth century. This also serves as the â€Å"central theme in other liberation theologies†, and applies in significant ways to secular as well as religious history, leading up to contemporary practices. Alongside the expression of black American sentiments, the book also notes the parallel historical events in the American continent. The fact that most of the African American immigration to America has been un-volitional is recognized through out the text. We will write a custom essay sample on Slave Religion by Albert J. Raboteau specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Slave Religion by Albert J. Raboteau specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Slave Religion by Albert J. Raboteau specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer In an attempt to explicate the true implications of â€Å"slave culture†, the author is compelled to touch upon the political aspects of religion and argues in favor of their necessity. In other words, this â€Å"creative means of continuation† of African cultural influences, frequently intertwined with European and Judeo-Christian origins, provides a sense of belonging and identity to the community, while leaving aside other aspects of slavery. The book essentially provides the necessary foundation for the oppressed masses to rebel against authority and to free themselves from the repressive mental shackles of slavery. The author claims that the basic motivation for writing this book â€Å"was the passing-on of unwritten traditions, oral traditions no longer heard†. Also, he intends to invoke interest in the subject through conventional methodology to educate the reader. This, Raboteau believes, is the spiritual effort of contemplating about â€Å"a tradition that stands a continuing challenge to the complacency exhibited by most of Christianity†. In respect of the task of documenting long-standing traditions, the book is quite good. The author includes hymns and songs, and anecdotes and verses, historical narratives as well as scholarly interpretations of various sources for the documentation of this little studied aspect of American religious history. Raboteau incorporates in the text extracts from native African languages in addition to adaptations by black Americans already living in the Americas. The author also depicts in depth several practices and customs, including the â€Å"ring shout and belief structures†. For instance, the preservation of aspects of African deities and gods was usually more pronounced in the South American continent when compared to the predominantly Protestant North America. Raboteau also gives different rationales for it, which takes into consideration â€Å"the greater possibility of syncretism and cross-identification of practices†. Raboteau notes that, after a while, most of the American slaves were â€Å"native-born†, while elsewhere in the world (Caribbean and Latin American regions), there was a steady and gradual influx of immigrants from the African continent. Raboteau also delves into some of the contradictions inherent in American Christianity which uses religious conversion as a justification to enslave other people. In recent times such practices are very rare, but the primary reason for allowing the enslavement of certain communities was to make them subordinate to the faith of convenience (which in the case of African Americans was Christianity). Furthermore, there was this conception that â€Å"there were not only spiritual benefits to the slaves, but also the contact of the slaves with Western civilization was by itself a better state than that in which the people had lived as free persons†. There were hindrances for a short while in allowing slaves to convert to Christianity, for it would allow them to expect just, fair and equal treatment. The author’s depiction of the governing institutions and the way the â€Å"invisible institution† is run is quite interesting. The public churches of the day were always surrounded by controversies as a result of their exclusive nature. The ‘invisible institution’, as the author refers to it, â€Å"existed often as a forbidden aspect†. African American slaves were allowed to participate in both black churches (the congregations of which also contained members of other racial and ethnic minorities). According to Raboteau, these congregations usually see more number of slaves, many of whom risk punishment when they join other worshippers in secluded locations. Close to the end of the Civil War, the culture of slavery prevailing in America was to a great extent associated with Christianity, especially in the southern states. The author asserts that â€Å"the secular/sacred clash often present in the modern-day culture was present even in the slave cabins, where secular music that provided antecedents to rhythm and blues would sometimes compete with the more religious-oriented calls to worship†. The only criticism that could be attributed to Raboteau is it emphasis on Christianity alone, while not taking into consideration other religions. Also, the author can also be criticized for not representing the viewpoints of women, especially given their significance in â€Å"the preservation of slave culture and religion†. Although these criticism in them don’t take away the many merits of the book, more revisionist history is required in this field before a complete picture of this controversial aspect of the country’s past is understood properly. In the final analysis, the book is a landmark in the quest for the true history of American minorities in general and African American Christians in particular. In this sense, it is one of the most important pieces of literature, pertaining to the political, religious and sociological evolution of America.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Select a Female Candidate Essay Example

Select a Female Candidate Essay Example Select a Female Candidate Essay Select a Female Candidate Essay Lois Murphy is currently in a hotly contested race against incumbent Jim Gerlach for a seat in the House of Representatives, representing Pennsylvania’s 6th Congressional District.   She was born in 1963 in Hempstead, New York to parents who were both public school educators.   Lois attended and graduated from both Harvard and Radcliffe Colleges.   While in law school she met her husband Benjamin Eisner, a labor attorney.   After law school Lois clerked for a judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit.   She joined the Justice Department and then served as associate legal counsel for NARAL Pro-Choice America.   Lois also works as a lawyer in the private sector as a member of Heckscher, Teillon, Terrill Sager, P.C.   She currently lives in Montgomery County with her husband Ben and their two daughters, Emily and Lily, who attend public schools as their mother did (Lois Murphy for Congress).Lois Murphy first ran for Congress in 2004 against Jim Gerl ach and lost by only 2%, in one of the closest races that year.   The numbers ran as follows:2004 United States House of RepresentativesLois Murphy 153,977 49.0%Jim Gerlach 160,348 51.0%This year Murphy defeated Mike Leibowitz with 75% of the vote in the Democratic primary.   She is squaring off again against Gerlach whose position could be vulnerable (Wikipedia).This particular race has seen a lot of spending by both sides.   The National Republican Congressional Committee has spent $3.9 million so far.   Most of this has been in negative campaign ads against Murphy.   The Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee has spent $3 million against Gerlach (Political parties spend $225 million (â‚ ¬177 million) on targeted elections).Murphy has taken a strong stand on several issues.   She supports tax cuts for the middle class, citing the rising costs of health care, home heating, gas, and college tuition.   She also used Hurricane Katrina as an example that expo sed gaps in the federal emergency plan.   She will work to make federal response to such emergencies more efficient.   She will work towards more fiscal responsibility and affordable, accessible health care. She supports ethics reform, economic growth, cleaning up the environment while developing new energy policies and setting higher standards for education (Lois Murphy for Congress).Lois Murphy has a tough race ahead of her and right now no one is willing to concede who will be the possible victor.   The Democrats have a possibility of taking this seat due to voter’s anger and dissatisfaction with the Republican Party.   One issue that has stood out the most is the war in Iraq as well as some of the ethical and legal battles Republicans have faced on the Hill.   If voters are keeping these issues in mind, then Democrats like Lois Murphy stand a chance of winning their seat.BibliographyLois Murphy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 7 Nov 2006, http://en.wikipe dia.org/wiki/Lois_Murphy

Friday, November 22, 2019

Qué es Alien Registration Number y dónde encontrarlo

Quà © es Alien Registration Number y dà ³nde encontrarlo El Alien Registration Number es un nà ºmero de identificacià ³n asignado por una agencia o autoridad de Estados Unidos a un extranjero presente en el paà ­s. El Alien Registration Number, que tambià ©n se conoce como  A Number, A #  e incluso  green card number  est conformado por la letra A seguido siete, ocho o nueve dà ­gitos. Una vez que un nà ºmero ha sido asignado a una persona, à ©ste no cambia, es decir, siempre es el mismo. Quià ©nes tienen un Alien Registration Number Los extranjeros  que se encuentran en Estados Unidos pueden tener un Alien Registration Number, pero no todos lo tienen. En realidad, solamente los que se encajan en una de las cuatro  categorà ­as siguientes: En primer lugar, los residentes permanentes legales, es decir los que tienen una tarjeta de residencia, tambià ©n conocida como greencard. En segundo lugar, los extranjeros en proceso de ajuste de estatus. En tercer lugar, los extranjeros que tienen un permiso de trabajo por razones distintas a un ajuste de estatus. Y, finalmente y en cuarto lugar, los migrantes que sin pertenecer a ninguna de las tres categorà ­as anteriores  tienen o han tenido algà ºn tipo de procedimiento abierto en una corte migratoria. Por ejemplo, el caso de indocumentados en un proceso de deportacià ³n o un solicitante de asilo en fase defensiva, etc. Cabe destacar que si se est en Estados Unidos con una visa no inmigrante, como la de turista, estudiante, etc. no se tiene un Alien Registration Number, a menos que se haya abierto un procedimiento en corte migratoria o està © en tramitacià ³n para ajuste de estatus. Asimismo, los indocumentados que no han tenido ningà ºn tipo de contacto con las autoridades migratorias tampoco lo tienen. Por à ºltimo, cabe destacar que es posible solicitar a USCIS que notifique cul es el Alien Number de una persona que sabe que lo tiene pero no es capaz de encontrar ningà ºn documento en el que figura y no lo recuerda de memoria. Para estos casos se puede pedir una FOIA mediante el formulario G-639. Tambià ©n es posible solicitar el rà ©cord migratorio a una corte. Dà ³nde un migrante puede verificar cul es su alien registration number Este nà ºmero se puede encontrar en la tarjeta de residencia green card. Los migrantes que ingresaron a EE.UU. con una visa de inmigrante pueden encontrarlo en dicha visa, con el nombre de registration number. Asimismo, puede encontrarse en la carta del USCIS en la que se notifica la aprobacià ³n de la solicitud de ajuste de estatus o en la tarjeta de un permiso de trabajo. Los migrantes que tienen o han tenido un trmite ante la corte migratoria pueden encontrar el nà ºmero de alien en la apertura del expediente. Para quà © se utiliza el alien number El alien number es necesario para completar  formularios  de todo tipo, pero especialmente los migratorios, aunque tiene ms finalidades. Si al llenar una planilla piden un A# de nueve dà ­gitos pero se tiene un alien number de solamente siete u ocho debe aà ±adirse un 0 (cero) o dos ceros a la izquierda del nà ºmero para asà ­ tener un nà ºmero de nueve cifras. Es necesario el nà ºmero de alien, por ejemplo, cuando un residente permanente reclama la tarjeta de residencia para su cà ³nyuge o hijo se le pide su nà ºmero de extranjero. Tambià ©n es necesario para pedir la ciudadanà ­a estadounidense por naturalizacià ³n, solicitar el Nà ºmero del Seguro Social o al completar el formulario I-9 al iniciar un trabajo en una empresa. Tambià ©n se utiliza para declarar y pagar  impuestos  e incluso para solicitar  becas  federales mediante la Aplicacià ³n Gratuita de Ayuda Federal para Estudiantes (FAFSA, por sus siglas en inglà ©s) para quienes puede aplicar desde el punto de vista migratorio y financiero. Tambià ©n se utiliza para comprobar el derecho a ciertos beneficios sociales, como cupones de alimentos o Medicaid. Otro ejemplo para el que se utiliza el A# es para buscar a personas que se cree que han sido detenidas por Inmigracià ³n. El sistema para localizarlas digitalmente creado por el gobierno pide que se introduzca ese nà ºmero, si se tiene uno y se conoce. Por esta razà ³n, si se tiene ese nà ºmero es importante comunicarlo a un familiar cercano o a un amigo confianza porque puede ser muy à ºtil que otra persona lo tenga a la hora de localizar a migrante que ha sido detenido. Tambià ©n se puede utilizar el Alien Registration Number para que un migrante pueda saber si tiene una orden de deportacià ³n en su contra dictada en ausencia. Si existe una duda razonable de que un migrante tiene ese tipo de orden es importante que se informe ya que de ser detenido podrà ­a ser deportado inmediatamente sin pasar por corte migratoria. Quà © hacer si un formulario pregunta el Alien Registration Number y no se tiene Si una planilla pregunta por el nà ºmero de alien y no se tiene se debe dejar el espacio correspondiente en blanco, escribir NONE o N/A. Un ejemplo son los formularios para solicitar los papeles a un familiar en el punto en el que preguntan por el A-number de la persona pedida, si à ©sta no hay tenido jams uno. Lo que nunca se aconseja es escribir un nà ºmero falso, inventado o que corresponda a otra persona ya que eso es un fraude de ley y puede tener en el futuro consecuencias migratorias muy negativas. En ocasiones, ser posible utilizar como nà ºmero de identificacià ³n el del Seguro Social o incluso el ITIN. Pero hay que asegurarse de que es posible. En muchos casos no se admite la sustitucià ³n de un nà ºmero por los otros ya que el nà ºmero del Social o del ITIN no indican, por sà ­ solos, estatus migratorio legal.   Evitar confusiones con el Alien Registration Number No se debe confundir el Alien Registration  Number con el nà ºmero de Seguridad Social. El SS# consta de nueve dà ­gitos y es emitido por la Administracià ³n de la Seguridad Social a los ciudadanos estadounidenses, residentes permanentes legales y a ciertas categorà ­as de extranjeros con visas que permiten solicitar autorizaciones para trabajar. Tampoco confundirlo con el nà ºmero del I-94, registro de entrada y salida de Estados Unidos y que es el nà ºmero que se pide para completar algunos formularios migratorios, como por ejemplo, pedir extensià ³n o cambio de visa, solicitar ajuste de estatus, etc. Puntos Clave: Alien Registration Number El Alien Registration Number es un nà ºmero de 7,8 o 9 dà ­gitos que sirve para identificar a extranjeros en EE.UU. Es siempre el mismo, nunca cambia.No todos los extranjeros tienen un Alien Registration Number. Sà ­ lo tienen: residentes permanentes, personas con ajuste de estatus aprobado, extranjeros con permiso de trabajo y migrantes que han tenido o tienen un expediente en corte migratoria.Llenando el formulario G-639 es posible pedir a USCIS que notifique el nà ºmero de alien de una persona que sabe que lo ha tenido pero no lo recuerda ni guarda ningà ºn documento en el que conste. Tambià ©n se puede pedir una FOIA a una corte migratoria.Llenar un formulario utilizando un alien registration number falso o de otra persona es un fraude de ley. Este es un artà ­culo informativo. No es asesorà ­a migratoria legal para ningà ºn caso concreto.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

The Development of the United States Government Research Paper

The Development of the United States Government - Research Paper Example In western Massachusetts, the peasants held rallies against the injustice of high taxes and impartial justice provided by the courts to the creditors (Waldrep and Bellesiles, 104). In September 1786 Daniel Shays and other neighboring influential led numerous hundred men in compelling the Supreme Court in Springfield to postpone. Shays guided a force of nearly 1,200 men in an assail (January 1787) on the federal armory at Springfield, which was revolted. Pursued by the armed force, on February 4 he was determinedly conquered at Petersham and escaped to Vermont. Accordingly, the Massachusetts legislature ratified laws lessening the monetary condition of debtors. Though small in extent and easily subdued, Shays’s deed became, for some, an influential argument for a well-built and conventional national government, in that way causing the progress for the Constitutional Convention (Shays’ Rebellion-United States History). The states in accepting the article of amalgamation which formed a government, wherein all legislative power was entrusted in a single house, had gone away from practically all of their ethnicity from government (Stidham, 1). On September 17, 1787, 39 delegates signed the constitution in the Assembly Room of Independence hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Jordan, 17). At that juncture the distribution of legislative power between the House of Lords and the House of Commons was judged to be a crucial element of the English structure; and, in all of the settlements excluding Pennsylvania, two houses had been expanded and were offered by the entire state constitutions excluding those of Pennsylvania and Georgia. Together Randolph’s and Pinckney’s strategies were commenced straight away after the association of the convention, offered for two houses’ and two days afterward the convention determined, exclusive of debate, Pennsylvania and no-one else voting against i t, supportive of such an allocation of legislative power. Soon after

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Viral Marketing of FMCG Using Social Media Essay

Viral Marketing of FMCG Using Social Media - Essay Example Another important area of this study will be primary research. According to me primary research will play an important role in this study. Viral marketing is a new dimension of marketing and there is less number of companies which have actually made use of this marketing tool. Moreover, directly receiving the feedbacks from the companies which employs viral marketing technique to improve business process will help to address the questions in a better way. Hence, I have decided to conduct a primary research with the help of questionnaire and semi structured interview. For this reason I have decided to visit an FMCG company which is already using viral marketing to promote their goods. After a handful of research I found there are very less number of FMCG companies which has already makes use of viral marketing techniques, however companies such as P & g and Unilever uses it to some extent. Hence, for this study I will select Unilever to assess the importance of viral marketing for FMC G business (Lowell, 2012). I have decided to personally visit the company to record the feedbacks of the respondents. In order to reach the respondents I will seek assistance from some qualified person who has prior experience of the FMCG industry. The respondents of my study will be the marketing managers of Unilever. It is believed that the marketing managers will be able to provide information pertaining to the effectiveness of viral marketing for their company. The total sample size for this activity will be 10 and the data collection instrument will be semi structured interview. However, I also believe that viral marketing is a topic which is also related with information technology. Hence, I have decided to approach...After a handful of research I found there are very less number of FMCG companies which has already makes use of viral marketing techniques, however companies such as P & g and Unilever uses it to some extent. Hence, for this study I will select Unilever to assess the importance of viral marketing for FMCG business (Lowell, 2012). I have decided to personally visit the company to record the feedbacks of the respondents. In order to reach the respondents I will seek assistance from some qualified person who has prior experience of the FMCG industry. The respondents of my study will be the marketing managers of Unilever. It is believed that the marketing managers will be able to provide information pertaining to the effectiveness of viral marketing for their company. The total sample size for this activity will be 10 and the data collection instrument will be semi structured interview. However, I also believe that viral marketing is a topic which is also related with information technology. Hence, I have decided to approach the IT team of Unilever, to get further information about the area of concern. The IT department will be mainly approached to know about the technicalities and cost associated with viral marketing. On the basis of the findings a feasibility analysis of viral marketing technique will be carried out. The total sample size will be 10 and the data collection instrument will be questionnaire. Finally, on the basis of the findings I will draw a conclusion by addressing the research question.

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Experiment 4 Rdr - Chemical Equilibrium Essay Example for Free

Experiment 4 Rdr Chemical Equilibrium Essay Iron-Silver Equilibrium In the first phase of the experiment, iron sulfate was mixed with silver nitrate, and the reaction produced solid silver and iron nitrate, which is formally written as, Fe2+ (aq) + Ag+ (aq) ⇄ Ag (s) + Fe3+ (aq) The mixture was then placed in a centrifuge in order for the solid silver to settle and separate from the supernate. The supernate was then tested for the presence of Fe2+, Fe3+ and Ag+ by placing K3Fe(CN)6, KSCN and HCl to 3 separate samples of the supernate. The result of the tests was as follows: 1.Addition of K3Fe(CN)6 After K3Fe(CN)6 was added to the supernate, a Prussian blue precipitate was formed, more formally written as, Fe2+ (aq) + Fe(CN)63- (aq) + K+ (aq) → K∙Fe2(CN)6 (s) This reaction thus proves that the supernate contains Fe2+. 2.Addition of KSCN After KSCN was added to the supernate, a blood red complex was formed, more formally written as, Fe3+ (aq) + SCN- (aq) → FeSCN2+ (aq) This reaction thus proves that the supernate contains Fe3+. 3.Addition of HCl The last test was the addition of HCl to the supernate. This produced a white precipitate, which we can formally write as, Ag+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) → AgCl (s) This reaction thus proves that the supernate conatins Ag+. The 3 tests showed that all 3 ions were present in the supernate. This goes to show that the reaction between iron sulfate and silver nitrate was in a state of equilibrium since both the ions in the product and reactant side were present, meaning to say that the forward and reverse reactions were proceeding at the same rate. Furthermore, the range of the equilibrium constant (Keq) for the reaction of iron sulfate and silver nitrate is from 10-10 to 1010 [1]. Copper-Ammonia Equilibrium The second phase of the experiment dealt with the reaction between copper sulfate and ammonia, more formally written as, CuSO4 (aq) + 2 NH4OH (aq) → Cu(OH)2 (aq) + (NH4)2SO4 (aq) The pale blue precipitate formed at the beginning of the reaction of copper sulfate and ammonia was the Cu(OH)2. From the pale blue color, it turned into a deep cerulean blue when 11 drops of ammonia was added. The solution then went back to the pale blue color after 4 drops of hydrochloric acid was added. The addition of hydrochloric acid added more H+ ions to the solution; therefore, drawing the equilibrium back to the reactant side. This equilibrium reaction is formally stated as, [Cu(H2O)6]2+ (aq) + 4 NH3 (aq) ⇄ [Cu(NH3)6]2+ (aq) + H2O (l) As observed, it took almost 3 times the number of drops of ammonia to change the pale blue color to a deep cerulean blue as compared to the number of drops of hydrochloric acid that changed the deep cerulean blue back to pale blue. This means that the reverse reaction was more spontaneous than the forward reaction. Chromate-Dichromate Equilibrium In the third phase of the experiment, the chromate and dichromate solutions were observed. Chromate had a yellow color, while dichromate had an orange color. When sulfuric acid was added to a sample of chromate and dichromate solutions, the yellow chromate solution turned orange, while the dichromate solution remained orange. The equation for the chromate’s change in color is as follows, 2 CrO42- (aq) + 2 H+ (aq) → H2O (l) + Cr2O7- (aq) When sodium hydroxide was added to a sample of chromate and dichromate, the chromate solution remained yellow, while the orange dichromate solution turned yellow, formally written as, 2 OH- (aq) + Cr2O7- (aq) → 2 CrO42- (aq) + H2O (l) The change in color of chromate as hydrochloric acid was added and the change in color of dichromate as sodium hydroxide was added was due to the instability of the reactions, causing a shift in the equilibrium. The acid H2SO4 (sulfuric acid) was used in the reaction since it’s a strong acid, and strong acids dissociate more. The added H+ ions increase the concentration, therefore, shifting the equilibrium. Based on the observations made, it could be said that the dichromate solution is stable under acidic conditions, while the chromate solution is stable under basic conditions. Iron-Thiocyanate Equilibrium In the fourth phase of the experiment, iron trichloride was reacted to thiocyanate giving way to this reaction, [Fe(H2O)6]2+ (aq) + SCN- (aq) ⇄ [Fe(SCN)(H2O)5]2+ (aq) + H2O (l) The reaction produced a light orange solution, which was then tested to determine to which direction the equilibrium shifted when Fe3+, SCN- and NaCl were added. The result of the tests was as follows: 1.Addition of Fe3+ After FeCl3 was added to a sample of the solution, the light orange color of the solution became a darker shade of orange, which could be said to show a shift to the right. 2.Addition of SCN- After KSCN- was added to a sample of the solution, the shade of orange of the solution was lighter than the solution when FeCl3 was added, but darker than the original light orange color. It could then be said that the equilibrium shifted to the right. 3.Addition of NaCl Lastly, NaCl was added to a sample of the solution. It was observed that the resulting solution had a lighter shade of orange than that of the original. With this, it could be said that the equilibrium shifted to the left. The shift to the left of the equilibrium was brought about by the reaction of Cl- (from NaCl) with Fe(SCN)3. Cobalt-Cobalt Chloride Equilibrium The last and final phase of the experiment was on the reaction of cobalt dichloride and hydrochloric acid which could be formally written as, [Co(H2O)6]2+(aq) + 4Cl- (aq) ⇄ [Co(Cl)4]2-(aq) + 6H2O(l) The first part of this phase reacted cobalt dichloride with hydrochloric acid. The pink color of the cobalt dichloride (Co2+) turned blue (CoCl42-) when hydrochloric acid was added. In the second part of this phase, the test tube containing cobalt dichloride was immersed in a boiling water bath. The pink color of the solution turned blue when the temperature increased. With this, it could be said that the equilibrium shifted to the right upon heating. When the temperature is increased at constant pressure, an exothermic reaction would proceed backward or shift to the left. In this case, the increase in temperature made the equilibrium shift to the right; therefore, the reaction is said to be endothermic. CONCLUSION The experiment basically could be summarized into the 5 different equilibrium states. First, the iron-silver equilibrium states that reactants and products could indeed co-exist in a system. Second, the copper-ammonia equilibrium states that certain chemicals could affect the state of equilibrium of a system. Third, the chromate-dichromate equilibrium states that increasing the acidity or basicity of the solution could either move the equilibrium forward or backward. Fourth, the iron-thiocyanate equilibrium states that â€Å"An increase in the concentration of the reactant or a decrease in the concentration of the product shifts the direction of the reaction towards the production of more products to return to the equilibrium position. On the contrary, a decrease in the concentration of the reactants or an increase in the concentration of the product shifts the equilibrium position towards the production of more reactants.† [3] Lastly, the cobalt-cobalt chloride equilibrium states that an increase in temperature in an endothermic reaction favors product formation, therefore shifting the equilibrium to the right. On the contrary, increasing the temperature in an exothermic reaction favors reactant formation causing a shift to the left. RECOMMENDATIONS The methods and procedures done in the experiment are sufficient to obtain the data and results needed. No further recommendation is needed. REFERENCES [1] Petrucci, Ralph et.al. General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, 10th ed.; Pearson Canada: Toronto, Ontario, 2010. [2] Padolina, Ma. Cristina et.al. Conceptual and Functional Chemistry: Modular Approach, Vibal Publishing House, Inc.: Araneta, Quezon City, 2004. [3] Chemical Equilibrium. [Online]. http://www.scribd.com/doc/30015115/Expt-9-Chemical-Equilibrium (accessed last January 15, 2013)